Editor's note: This article was originally published September 12, 2014; it was updated November 6, 2017 to reflect the latest information.
South Sudan should be a country full of hope more than six years after gaining independence. Instead, it’s now in the grip of a massive humanitarian crisis.
Political conflict, compounded by economic woes and drought, has caused massive displacement, raging violence and dire food shortages. 4.8 million people are in need of aid, and by March 2018, 5.1 million people are estimated to continue facing hunger. Due to these issues, areas of South Sudan were experiencing famine earlier this year.
The people of this young country need our help, and among the world’s other crises, we must not forget them. We are working on the ground to reach families who are struggling to survive — but our lifesaving work starts with you.
Learn more about this complex crisis and get the latest of our South Sudan news below. Plus, find out how you can help.
Follow @mercycorps ▸ on Twitter for regular updates on South Sudan.
When did the crisis start?
South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in July 2011, but the hard-won celebration was short-lived. The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement, the ruling political party that originally led the way for independence, is now divided and fighting for power.
In December 2013, political infighting erupted into violence in the streets of the capital, Juba, after South Sudan’s president accused his vice president of an attempted coup. Fighting between the two factions of government forces loyal to each soon moved to Bor, and then to Bentiu.
Photo: Camille LePage for Mercy Corps
Violence spread across the young nation like wildfire, displacing 413,000 civilians in just the first month of conflict. Tens of thousands of civilians rushed to seek refuge in U.N. bases that were subsequently turned into makeshift displacement camps.
The fighting has continued, becoming increasingly brutal and affecting the entire country.
What's going on now?
A handful of peace agreements have been signed over the course of the war — the most recent in August 2015 — but they have been repeatedly violated. The situation remains highly unstable and is prone to outbreaks of violence. This year new areas of the south of the country have become embroiled in the conflict, and lands that were once known as the breadbasket of South Sudan are not producing as much food as a result.
This year's harvest reflects the dire situation. As of November 2017, there are double the number of people experiencing the emergency phase — the phase before famine — than at this time last year. The lean season, which is the time of lower food stores between harvests, is expected to start three months earlier.
On top of these attacks, the country's economy is in crisis — the South Sudanese pound has declined in value, and the cost of goods and services has skyrocketed. The inflation rate — 835 percent — is the highest in the world.
In early 2017, a famine was declared in parts of South Sudan, leaving 100,000 people on the verge of starvation. While famine is no longer declared as of November 2017, an estimated 4.8 million people — 45 percent of the population — are in need of humanitarian assistance.
What's happening to people in South Sudan?
Since the conflict began, almost 1 in 3 people in South Sudan have been displaced. Some 3.7 million citizens have been forced to flee their homes: more than 2.1 million people have escaped to neighboring countries in search of safety, and more than 1.8 million are trapped inside the warring nation. South Sudan is now the third-most fled country in the world, behind Syria and Afghanistan.
Those who’ve run have lost loved ones and their homes, their land and their livelihoods. Violence toward civilians has been widespread, including targeted attacks, gender-based violence, kidnappings and murders. Burning and pillaging of homes and livestock is rampant.
And assaults on aid convoys and looting of supplies have become increasingly common, making it difficult — and dangerous — to reach in-need families with the support they need to survive.
Nationwide, hundreds of thousands of young ones are facing an uncertain future — according to UNICEF, over half the country’s children are out of school. Find out how we get kids to class during conflict ▸
Photo: Lindsay Hamsik/Mercy Corps
"I worry about my children. I don't know when this war will stop," says Mary. "There is no good news. There is only talk of fighting and attacks. The children have no food to eat. The children have no school to go to. Our children are becoming soldiers."
Across the country, children can't learn, people can’t work, farmers can’t plant — all they can do is hope to survive until there is an end to the vicious fighting.
How bad is the food crisis?
A massive humanitarian effort helped prevent widespread starvation in 2014, but the situation is desperate again. Ongoing violence continues to keep people from their homes, damage markets and disrupt planting, all of which keeps families from getting the food they need to survive.
6 million people are currently at risk of going hungry. With famine already ravaging parts of South Sudan, people are dying of hunger. Learn about our response to the food crisis ▸
South Sudan is also in the middle of a protracted, widespread cholera outbreak, with more than 13,000 cases reported this year.
Why did the humanitarian situation deteriorate so quickly?
Sudan, and what was then the semi-independent Southern Sudan, endured a brutal civil war for more than 25 years, which resulted in South Sudan’s independence in 2011. But the conflict in December 2013 reopened deeply-rooted political and ethnic tensions that hadn't yet been reconciled — and those divisions have continued to fuel ongoing clashes.
After those decades of conflict, South Sudan was and still is one of the least-developed countries in the world, which has further complicated the situation.
The larger cities in South Sudan had experienced some development, but the majority of the nation is rural. Even before the crisis, more than half of its citizens lived in absolute poverty, were dependent on subsistence agriculture and suffered from malnourishment.
Photo: Cassandra Nelson/Mercy Corps
"I am afraid we have lost our future and everything we worked so hard for to win our independence," says Chudier from the displacement camp where she's seeking safety. "We worked hard to build a life here [in South Sudan] and have beds to sleep on, blankets and plates to eat off. Now it is all gone.”
“I just want peace and to be able to take my family home, so they can have a normal life," she continues. "I spent most of my life as a refugee, I don’t want my children to grow up like I did.” Hear from more families on what they've lost in the war ▸
Because the economy was already fragile before fighting began, people like Chudier have very few resources to help them survive the long-term conflict and displacement they're now faced with.
In addition, the country has very little formal infrastructure — roads, buses, buildings — which makes it difficult to transport food and supplies. Many towns and villages become inaccessible during the annual rainy season due to closed airstrips, washed out roads or lack of roads altogether, sometimes limiting any delivery of humanitarian aid to the isolated areas that need it most.
Where have people fled to?
More than 2.1 million people have crossed into neighboring countries including Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda, resulting in Africa’s largest refugee crisis. Inside South Sudan, more than 1.8 million people are displaced.
Photo: Jacob Zocherman for Mercy Corps
The majority of displaced families live outside the camps, wherever they can find safe shelter — often in small villages that offer some security, tucked away from the main areas of fighting. For some living in the most violent areas, there is no other choice but to flee into the bush with what little they can carry with them.
How are people surviving outside of camps?
Many families who've fled their homes have had to move multiple times to escape the spreading violence.
Some run into the bush, with their children on their backs and little or nothing else. In the bush, there is often nothing to eat but wild plants like grass, roots and water lilies. But some people would rather face the risk of starving than endure the violence that is rampant in towns and villages.
For others, finding shelter in an isolated, small village, removed from the violence, is the best they can hope for. Those villages offer some sense of safety, but there is little in the way of food or supplies, and always the risk that fighting will come and families will have to flee yet again.
Small food rations given out by aid organisations help somewhat, but escalating attacks on aid convoys and the annual rainy season make deliveries difficult and infrequent — not enough to count on.
Mercy Corps is providing seeds and tools and helping to restart markets in small villages so food can be grown and accessed by families sheltering in rural areas.
Photo: Dominic Nahr for Mercy Corps
Why is there so little food to harvest?
South Sudan has agricultural potential, but due to poor infrastructure and lack of technology, growing enough food to feed everyone in the young nation has never been easy. After decades of struggle, food security was starting to improve before the current conflict began. In 2013, harvests of staple crops like millet, maize, and sorghum were up 20 percent (FAO).
Unfortunately, the conflict has disrupted farming and any hard-earned improvements have been lost. Because of the fighting, people who would normally grow crops have been far away from their land, running and hiding from violence — unable to plant. Conflict has also reached the Equatorias, the area considered the breadbasket of South Sudan, which is exacerbating the food shortage.
As conflict continues, many families are still far from home and unable to plant seeds, prepare land or harvest their crops. About half of all crops in violence-ridden areas.
Can people buy more food?
Food stores are running out and many markets are empty. Traders are too worried about possible attacks to transport food supplies from safer areas.
What little food is available has soared in price, and most displaced families have no money to buy any goods. In Juba, the retail price of sorghum, a staple grain, is 600 percent higher than it was in 2015.
What is life like in camps?
While there may be relative safety in the six U.N. camps, the conditions there are dire.
Photo: Cassandra Nelson/Mercy Corps
The bases were not designed to host this many people for so long. Proper sanitation, hygiene and waste disposal are inadequate in such crowded conditions, and heavy seasonal rains flood many of the camps, making things even worse.
In some camps, flooding has collapsed newly-built latrines, forcing people to walk through knee-high water that is contaminated with sewage. There have been reports of mothers sleeping standing up, holding their children, because there is nowhere clean to rest. Read our Q+A: How to survive in Bentiu ▸
What about disease?
Beyond making everyday activities like sleeping and preparing food extremely difficult, heavy rains and standing water also increase the risk of disease.
Photo: Lindsay Hamsik/Mercy Corps
Communicable and waterborne diseases like cholera and malaria spread quickly in these conditions. The risks are also high for other infections caused by contaminated water, malnutrition and weakened immune systems. Children are hungry and thirsty. If they get desperate, they may end up drinking dirty water that could give them an infection. For a young child, an infection can lead to weight loss, severe dehydration and even death. More than 13,000 cases of cholera have been reported this year.
What are the most urgent needs in the camps?
Displaced families receive some food, but there are urgent needs for additional food and disease prevention through better sanitation and access to clean water.
How do we help people in camps stay healthy?
To help prevent outbreaks, better sanitation and clean water are critical. In and around the Bentiu U.N. base, in the capital of Unity State, we are helping by building latrines and hand-washing stations, teaching proper hygiene and providing clean water, helping more than 50,000 displaced people.
Building latrines and teaching proper hygiene and waste disposal are the best ways to ensure that water sources stay clean for people to drink, cook and bathe. Read more about our hygiene response ▸
What will happen if the fighting continues?
Without peace and support, families will remain in hiding away from their homes and their land, unable to plant, and the economy will decline further.
The number of people at risk of hunger will continue to rise. Families will die from starvation, malnutrition and disease.
Is South Sudan getting enough assistance?
The short answer: no.
The UN appealed for £1 billion to assist 7.6 million people in need in 2017. So far, some 70 percent of the budget is funded.
Many humanitarian organisations, including Mercy Corps, are partnering with the U.N., using both private contributions and funding from the international community, to address the urgent needs of innocent people in South Sudan.
There are many crises we are working to address, but this young and vulnerable country needs more help to avoid further catastrophe and human suffering.
Photo: Lindsay Hamsik/Mercy Corps
"Many people here in our community have been displaced," says Albino. "We were forced to run from here and some of us returned to nothing."
How can we help?
Mercy Corps is working to provide desperately-needed latrines, showers, hand-washing stations and clean water to help people survive and prevent the spread of diseases like cholera in camps and communities.
In the small villages where many people are sheltering, we have rehabilitated living spaces, provided seeds, tools and training so people can grow food wherever they are living, and implemented cash-for-work programmes to give vulnerable families some money to purchase supplies.
We're also distributing emergency funds to help traders and families access goods in hard-hit areas of the country. And our emergency education programme trains teachers, repairs schools and provides school supplies and free meals so children can continue learning despite this crisis. In one refugee settlement in Uganda, we're providing cash aid that will allow refugees to buy what they need most while also stimulating the local economy.