The Syrian conflict has created one of the worst humanitarian crises of our time. Over half of the country’s pre-war population — more than 12 million people — have been killed or forced to flee their homes.
Families are struggling to survive inside Syria, or make a new home in neighbouring countries. Others risked their lives on the way to Europe, hoping to find acceptance and opportunity. And harsh winters and hot summers make life as a refugee even more difficult. At times, the effects of the conflict can seem overwhelming.
But one fact is simple: millions of Syrians need our help. According to the U.N., £3 billion was required to meet the urgent needs of the most vulnerable Syrians in 2019 — but only a little more than a third has been received.
You can help. The more you know about the crisis, the more we can do together to help those in need. The lifesaving work we do, empowering people to survive through crisis and build better lives, is only possible with your knowledge and support.
So take a few minutes to understand the magnitude of this crisis. Read below to learn the facts behind the figures.
- When did the crisis in Syria start?
- What is happening in Syria now?
- What is Turkey's recent military involvement in Syria?
- What is happening to Syrians caught in the war?
- Where are Syrians fleeing to?
- How are Syrians escaping conflict?
- How many Syrian refugees are there?
- Do all refugees live in camps?
- What conditions are Syrian refugees facing outside camps?
- How many Syrian refugees are children?
- Is there enough assistance to reach everyone?
- What is Mercy Corps’ position on possible military action in Syria?
- What can we do to help the people of Syria?
When did the crisis in Syria start?
Anti-government demonstrations began in March of 2011, as part of the Arab Spring. But the peaceful protests quickly escalated after the government's violent crackdown, and armed opposition groups began fighting back.
By July, army defectors had loosely organised the Free Syrian Army and many civilian Syrians took up arms to join the opposition. Divisions between secular and religious fighters, and between ethnic groups, continue to complicate the politics of the conflict.
What is happening in Syria now?
Tens of thousands of civilians have been forced to flee the fighting and are in desperate need of humanitarian assistance. The UN is reporting that at least 160,000 civilians have fled their homes and up to 400,000 may need help in the coming days and weeks. Unicef is reporting that almost 70,000 children have been displaced.
Many international NGOs and their international staff have been forced to depart the area or halt operations because of the deteriorating situation.
As a result, Mercy Corps’ international staff and our local partners on the ground have either had to operate in a limited capacity, relocate, or had access dramatically reduced.
“We are assessing the situation by the day, and when we can, we hope to resume all activities and return all staff as soon as possible,” says Made Ferguson, Deputy Country Director. "We are extremely concerned the humanitarian crisis will worsen, and if we cannot help those in need, who will be there to help them?"
“We are getting continuous requests for clean water, and other basics, as people are having to flee violence yet again,'' says Country Director Wolfgang Gressmann. “The situation on the ground is changing quickly in northeast Syria and this conflict is far from over, leaving hundreds of thousands of innocent civilians in desperate need of our help."
Mercy Corps has been working in Syria since 2008 — delivering assistance and support both before and during the ongoing civil war and has been delivering humanitarian aid to civilians in northeast Syria since 2014. Mercy Corps has been providing humanitarian emergency assistance to civilians by providing freshwater, and other basic needs, since the Turkish incursion began on October 9.
What is Turkey's recent military involvement in Syria?
Currently in northeast Syria, Turkey has launched a cross-border military operation against Kurdish-led forces, days after U.S. troops previously allied to the Kurds pulled back from the border and the Kurdish forces have formed an alliance with the Syrian Army. Dozens of civilians and fighters have since been killed.
What is happening to Syrians caught in the war?
The war has killed hundreds of thousands of people in the eight years since it began. Crowded cities have been destroyed and horrific human rights violations are widespread. Basic necessities like food and medical care are sparse.
The U.N. estimates that 6.2 million people are internally displaced. When you also consider refugees, well over half of the country’s pre-war population of 22 million is in need of urgent humanitarian assistance, whether they still remain in the country or have escaped across the borders.
The situation in Syria went from bad to worse when outside parties became involved in the conflict in the fall of 2015. As conflict intensifies, our teams on the ground have seen an increase in humanitarian needs and families forced to leave their homes in search of safety.
Where are Syrians fleeing to?
More than 6.2 million people have fled their homes and remain displaced within Syria. They live in informal settlements, crowded in with extended family or sheltering in damaged or abandoned buildings. Some people survived the horrors of multiple displacements, besiegement, hunger and disease and fled to areas where they thought they would be safe, only to find themselves caught up in the crossfire once again. Across northern Syria, we are seeing that 20-60 percent of the population is made up of people who have had to flee their homes — many of them more than once.
More than 1.6 million Syrian refugees are living in Jordan and Lebanon, where Mercy Corps has been addressing their needs since 2012. In the region’s two smallest countries, weak infrastructure and limited resources are nearing a breaking point under the strain.
In August 2013, more Syrians escaped into northern Iraq at a newly-opened border crossing. Now they are trapped by that country's own internal conflict, and Iraq is struggling to meet the needs of Syrian refugees on top of 2 million internally displaced Iraqis — efforts that we are working to support.
More than 3.5 million Syrian refugees have fled across the border into Turkey, overwhelming urban host communities and creating new cultural tensions.
How are Syrians escaping conflict?
Thousands of Syrians get displaced within their country every day. They often decide to finally escape after seeing their neighbourhoods attacked or family members killed.
For many of those searching for safer, more stable places to live, families will often have to leave most of their belongings behind. They might have to travel for miles, uncertain of where they might find their next meal.
How many Syrian refugees are there?
According to the U.N., more than 12 million Syrians have been displaced from their homes — enough people to fill roughly 133 Wembley Stadiums. This includes about 5.6 million refugees who have been forced to seek safety in neighbouring countries, out of a total 6.3 million Syrian refugees worldwide — almost one-third of the world’s total refugee population.
Every year of the conflict has seen an exponential growth in refugees. In July 2012, there were 100,000 refugees. One year later, there were 1.5 million. That tripled by the end of 2015.
Today there are 5.6 million Syrians scattered throughout the region, making them the world's largest refugee population under the United Nations' mandate. It's the worst exodus since the Rwandan genocide 24 years ago.
Do all refugees live in camps?
The short answer: no. Only about 8 percent of Syrian refugees live in camps. The majority are struggling to settle in unfamiliar urban communities or have been forced into informal rural environments.
Jordan’s Zaatari, the first official refugee camp that opened in July 2012, gets the most news coverage because it is the destination for newly-arrived refugees. It is also the most concentrated settlement of refugees: Approximately 80,000 Syrians live in Zaatari, making it one of the country’s largest cities.
The formerly barren desert is crowded with acres of white tents, makeshift shops line a “main street” and sports fields and schools are available for children.
Azraq, a camp opened in April 2014, is carefully designed to provide a sense of community and security, with steel caravans instead of tents, a camp supermarket, and organised "streets" and "villages."
Because Jordan’s camps are run by the government and the U.N. — with many partner organisations like Mercy Corps coordinating services — they offer more structure and support. But many families feel trapped, crowded, and even farther from any sense of home, so they seek shelter in nearby towns.
Iraq has set up a few camps to house the influx of refugees who arrived in 2013, but the majority of families are living in urban areas. And in Lebanon, the government has no official camps for refugees, so families establish makeshift camps or find shelter in derelict, abandoned buildings. In Turkey, the majority of refugees are trying to survive and find work, despite the language barrier, in urban communities.
What conditions are Syrian refugees facing outside camps?
Some Syrians know people in neighbouring countries who they can stay with. But many host families were already struggling on meagre incomes and do not have the room or finances to help as the crisis drags on.
Refugees find shelter wherever they can. Our teams have seen families living in rooms with no heat or running water, in abandoned chicken coops and in storage sheds.
Refugees often land in host countries without all their identification, which has either been destroyed or left behind. Without the right documents in host countries, refugees can be evicted from housing, be unable to access medical care, education or most often, just be afraid to leave their homes. Without these documents, we see many refugees resort to negative coping strategies, including child labour, early marriage and engagement in unsafe work.
The lack of clean water and sanitation in crowded, makeshift settlements is an urgent concern. Diseases can easily spread — even more life-threatening without enough medical services. Reports indicate that as much as 35 percent of the population is currently relying on unsafe sources to meet daily water needs. In some areas with the largest refugee populations, water shortages have reached emergency levels; the supply has been as low as 22 litres per person per day — less than one-tenth of what the average American uses.
The youngest refugees face an uncertain future. Some schools have been able to divide the school day into two shifts and make room for more Syrian students. But there is simply not enough space for all the children, and many families cannot afford the transportation to get their kids to school.
How many Syrian refugees are children?
According to the U.N., almost half of all Syrian refugees — roughly 2.7 million — are under the age of 18. Most have been out of school for months, if not years. About 37,500 school buses would be needed to drive every young refugee to school.
The youngest are confused and scared by their experiences, lacking the sense of safety and home they need. The older children are forced to grow up too fast, finding work and taking care of their family in desperate circumstances.
One demographic that is largely overlooked is adolescents. Through Mercy Corps’ extensive work in and around Syria, we continuously witness young adults and adolescents in crisis.
The consequence of forgetting the unique needs of this next generation is they will become adults who are ill-equipped to mend torn social fabric and rebuild broken economies. Investing in adolescents now will yield dividends for decades to come for the peace and productivity so desperately needed in Syria and the region.
Is there enough assistance to reach everyone?
With no lasting peace in sight, Mercy Corps and other humanitarian organisations are struggling just to keep up with needs that continue to grow exponentially. U.N. appeals have been significantly underfunded every single year since the start of the Syrian crisis.
According to the U.N., £4 billion was required in 2017 to provide emergency support and stabilisation to families throughout the region — but just over half was received.
This year, £4 billion is required, and only 37 percent has been received.
What is Mercy Corps’ position on possible military action in Syria?
As humanitarians, Mercy Corps' work depends on our living our values of neutrality, impartiality and independence. We cannot speak to military action; instead what we can and must do is call the attention of the world to those innocent civilians in Syria who are caught in the crossfire and need our support.
Whatever decisions policymakers in Washington, DC, at the United Nations and around the world come to, we urge them to be mindful of their responsibility to take all possible measures to protect innocent civilians in times of war. And to allow us, as humanitarians, the access we need to do our lifesaving work.
Our Syrian teams and partners are in many cases risking their lives to provide support to the communities around them. They suffer alongside their neighbours as they are helping. We must do all we can to support them.
Mercy Corps works with refugees like Maram to find work that helps them meet their families’ immediate needs.
What can we do to help the people of Syria?
Mercy Corps is working hard to relieve the intense suffering of civilians inside Syria, as well as that of refugees seeking safety in neighbouring countries.
Today, our team members are helping hundreds of thousands of people affected by the crisis each month.
We are delivering food and clean water, restoring sanitation systems, improving shelters and providing families with clothing, mattresses and other household essentials. We are helping children cope with extreme stress and leading constructive activities to nurture their healthy development, while helping host communities and refugees work together to mitigate tensions and find solutions to limited resources. We are also supporting livelihood development through distribution of items like seeds and tools and facilitation of cash grants and business courses.
We’ve worked in the region for 20 years and are committed to helping Syrians and the countries hosting them for as long as it takes.
But as the number of those in need keeps increasing, your support will allow us do even more. Here’s how you can make a difference for Syrian refugees: